Are you a python programmer that likes a clean computer? Would you like to organise your projects in a way they keep their dependencies close and don't affect global policy? After reading this article you know how to setup a virtual environment for each project. You'll learn how to install packages to it and how to create a list of dependencies for easy install on another machine.

Create and activate a Python 3 virtual environment.


This article uses the Python 3 included venv module. Make sure Python 3.3 or later is installed on your computer. To check, open a terminal and enter:

python3 --version

Create a new Python project with virtual environment

Open the terminal and enter:

mkdir project1
cd project1
python3 -m venv env

A folder env has been created in project1. This folder contains all packages you will install for this project. To install packages, you first need to activate the virtual environment.

Activate virtual environment

source env/bin/activate

Notice that the terminal prompt now starts with (env).

Check what packages are installed for this project

As long as the virtual environment is activated, all pip commands apply to that environment. To check what packages are installed, enter the following command:

pip list

Upgrade pip

Python might notify you with You are using pip version xx.x.x, however version yy.y.y is available. You should consider upgrading via the 'pip install --upgrade pip' command. If it does, do as it tells you and enter:

pip install --upgrade pip

Installing packages

For this example, you will install Reactive extensions for python. To install packages, check if your prompt starts with (env) and enter the usual pip command like this:

pip install rx

Uninstalling packages

Uninstall packages with the usual pip command like this:

pip uninstall rx

Type pip list any time you like to see what is in the virtual environment.

Come back to work on an existing project

If you have closed the terminal and want to continue working on project1, open a terminal and enter:

cd project1
source env/bin/activate

Freeze packages

The env folder grows as you are installing packages. If you are planning to add the project to version control, you probably don’t want to commit the packages-source-code. Instead you want to add a list with dependencies (packages) so the project can be co-developed other machines. To make that list, open a terminal and enter:

pip freeze > requirements.txt

The contents of requirements.txt looks like this:


That list grows when you install more packages. requirements.txt can be committed to source control.

Install a project from source control on another machine

After cloning a project to a new machine, the dependencies need to be installed in the projects virtual environment. To do this for project1, open a terminal and enter:

cd project1
python3 -m venv env
source env/bin/activate
pip install -r requirements.txt

And that’s it! You have now learned how to use a virtual environment in Python3 with the following advantages:

Written by Loek van den Ouweland on 2019-02-07.
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